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Limit States Design


General concepts about actions on structures are cited in the §1.3 of Volume A', the study of which contributes to the understanding of the actions imposed on an earthquake resistant building.

Two limit states should be taken into account for the design [*]NoteNoteThe term ‘design’, as referred in EC0, could also be translated as study of a structure:

Ultimate Limit State (ULS)

ULS concerns the safety of people and structure. In all cases of gravity, environmental and seismic design actions, the structure [EC0, 3.3. (1)] should have sufficient resistance and serviceability during its design working life [*]NoteNoteThe proposed (national) values for the design life of usual buildings is 50 years and of monumental buildings 100 years. .

Serviceability Limit State (SLS)

In limit states design, the unfavourable actions are multiplied by a safety factor γf≥1.0 (e.g. γg=1.35 for dead loads and γq=1.50 for imposed loads), while the material strength is divided by γm ≥1.0 (ε.γ. γc=1.50 for concrete and γs=1.15 for steel).


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